Macro and Micro level issues of human resource planning
Human Resource Planning has both macro and micro level issues. Macro level includes
demographic changes, legal central, policies and markets technology etc. Micro level includes
organizational restructuring, skill, strategic objective, trade unions etc. Macro is uncontrollable
factor and Micro level is controllable factor.
Macro Level plays an important level in India.
Development of Human Resources is one of the important objectives of any country for long term economic growth. For a developing
economy like India such important is for more. This is more visible from our economic planning as
governments over the years have been giving increasing priority to population planning and control,
education, health, housing etc.
1) Population Planning and control:
To enforce control over population explosion, population planning and control measures
have been initiated by the Government. Unless such control is enforced in a planned manner, no
amount of institutional support can sustain and resulting in generation of unproductive population
which will remain a drain on our national resource.
2) Literacy and Education:
The National Policy on Education in 1986 provides a broad framework for complete
eradication of illiteracy in the country by declaring basic primary level education free and
compulsory to strengthen institutional infrastructure for education, the policy emphasizes on
increased government and non-government expenditure.
3) Health and Medical-care:
The health sector reforms are another required initiative for Human Resources
development at the macro level. In this respect, India has recorded disparity and regional balances.
In housing sector, Government has renewed its efforts by adopting the National Housing
policy in 1998. The basic objective of this policy is to achieve sustainable development of housing
infrastructure through public-private partnership.
Mapping means linkage between two sets of Data. It can be “One to One”, one to many or
many too many.
Age Group Preference:-
In many organizations, a particular age group is preferred to other
age groups for staffing vacancies. The idea of preference for a particular age group is based on
(i) Expected number of year of services.
(ii) Professional source of supply of required manpower in future.
(iii) Personally, dynamism, initiative, challenging attitude etc.
Age is used as an index of stamina and flexibility and for determining the possible length of
service before retirement. Although no empirical support, as such is available to relate promotion to
preference for age group, many organizations as a matter of policy, follow some norms regarding
age group vis-à-vis staffing of certain vacancies from within. In some cases where the existing
employees also contest with the outsiders for a particular vacancy, some relaxation in age is given to
them. Thus for the reasons stated earlier, preference for age group also influence for age group also
influence promotional decisions.
Competency Mapping is a map to display a set of competencies. It helps to describe an ideal
workforce. It is always done in the defined job context. Following is a set of approaches like:-
a.) Workforce Skills Analysis:- Skill analysis helps to describe skills required o carry out a function.
However, this is a dynamic approach, as it also considers nature of work changes in an organisation.
b.) Job Analysis:- It focus on tasks, responsibilities, knowledge and skill requirements, which are
required for successful job performance.
c.) Supply and Demand Analysis:-
Supply analysis is done considering work force demographic
occupations, grades, structure, experiment, race, origin, gender, age and present work force
competence. Demand analysis helps to identify work force of the future in line with the vision,
mission, objectives, goals & strategies of an organisation.
d.) Gap Analysis:-
It is done through solution analysis, taking into account both ongoing and planned changes in the
e.) Situation analysis:-
also weighs different options to get the work done, either considering
institutional or Conceptual employment.
Human Resource Information System (HRIS)
Human Resource Information System is an important element in Human Resource
development. It is a system to maintain, collect, and analyze data relating to Human Resources of
the organization. It helps managers in decision-making in respect of promotion, wage fixing,
recruitment, training and development. Human Resource Information System acts as a decision
support system. The inputs of Human Resource Information System include the information
relating to employees, their abilities, qualifications, potentialities, creative instincts, age, pay scales,
various jobs in the organization, their required skills and qualifications to do them, the number of
employees and executives manning various positions, organizational objectives, policies and
Major reasons for the present emphasis on manpower planning include the following:
1. Employment-Unemployment Situation :
Though in general the number of educated unemployed is on the rise, there is an acute shortage of a
variety of skills. This emphasizes the need for more effective recruitment and retaining people.
2. Technological Change :
The changes in production technologies, marketing methods and management techniques have been
extensive and rapid. Their effect has been profound on job contents and contexts. These changes can
cause problems relating to redundancies, retraining and redeployment. All these contribute to the
need to plan Human Resource needs intensively and systematically.
3. Organizational Change :
In a turbulent environment marked by cyclical fluctuations and discontinuities, the nature and pace
of changes in organizational environment, activities and structures affect Human Resource
requirements and require strategic consideration.
4. Demographic Changes :
The changing profile of the work force in terms of age, sex, literacy, technical inputs and social
background have implications for Human Resource planning.
5. Legislative Controls :
It is easy to increase but difficult to reduce the numbers employed because of recent changes in
labour law relating to lay-offs and closures. Those responsible for managing Human Resources
must look far ahead and attempt to foresee Human Resource position. Now legislation makes it
difficult to reduce the size of an organization quickly and cheaply.
6. Impact of Pressure Groups :
Pressure groups such as unions, politicians have been raising contradictory pressures on
enterprise management in areas such as internal recruitment and promotions, preference to
employees‘children, displaced persons, sons of soil, etc.